This Week in History

Milan and Venice Expel the Austrians: March 22, 24, 1848

Why was the imperial government in Vienna powerless to stop the rebellion? [Please see our story on the Vienna rebellion here.] After all, it had a strong army that had crushed rebellions in Italy — why could it not do the same in its capital city, Vienna? Why were the rebels there able to do as they wished? Why did rebellion have its way?

A Milanese illustration from 1848: An Austrian soldier depicted as a pig

Perhaps the chief reason was that the Austrian army was busy elsewhere — in Italy. Anti-Austrian feeling had long been simmering in Habsburg-controlled regions of Italy — in Lombardy and Venezia (both ruled directly from Vienna) as well as Tuscany, Parma, and Modena, which were ruled by Habsburg princes. Anti-Austrian feeling was especially strong in Milan, the capital of Lombardy, where many citizens longed for independence and Liberal freedoms. The Austrians had been hard masters.

News of the Viennese uprising and the downfall of Metternich got the trouble going in Milan. On March 18, 1848, a crowd of about 10,000 Milanese gathered in front of Milan’s town hall. It was not a peaceful gathering (many were armed), and soon a large number of the demonstrators had broken into the government palace and forced the vice-governor to give in to their demands.


This Week in History

The Fall of Metternich: March 13, 1848

Revolutionary students in the streets of Vienna, March 1848

In only a few days, Kossuth’s speech to the Hungarian Diet made its way the 50 or so miles from Pressburg to Vienna. There it was copied and spread around the city. News of the Paris revolution had already created much excitement among students of the University of Vienna, and now Kossuth’s speech worked like a call to battle. Reform not only of Hungary, but of all Austria! Constitutional government! Religious freedom! Students were ready to take up arms to force Austria and her Habsburg rulers at long last to enter the 19th century.

It was March 13, 1848. Delegates representing the people of Lower Austria had been summoned to meet in Vienna. They were gathering in their assembly hall, the Landhaus, when they heard from outside a rumbling of voices. An immense crowd of students and poor workingmen had surrounded the Landhaus. A student had been proclaiming Kossuth’s speech to the great, enthusiastic mob. The delegates could hear the angry cries — “Down with Metternich! Down with Metternich!” (more…)

This Week in History

Hungary against the Habsburgs:

March 3, 1848

Lajos Kossuth

For many years, Hungary and Austria had shared the same monarch (who was emperor in Austria, but king in Hungary), but not the same laws. Unlike Austria, and the rest of the Habsburg domains, Hungary had her own constitution. Hungary had her own diet, which was supposed to meet every three years in the city of Pressburg (or Poszony or Bratislava), located on Hungary’s border with Austria.

Hungary had performed great and important services for her Habsburg rulers, both in the wars against Friedrich the Great of Prussia and in the struggle against Napoleon. Hungarians had suffered much for their Habsburg kings.


This Week in History

Execution of the Cristeros’ “Maestro”:

April 1, 1927

This text comes from our book, Lands of Hope and Promise: A History of North America. Please visit our webpage to peruse sample chapters of our book. For ordering information on Lands of Hope and Promise and our other texts, please click here. Please visit our blog to read our previous post on the Cristeros.

“Escena de Viernes Santo en pleno siglo XX” (A Holy Friday Scene in the Middle of the 20th Century) — a picture depicting Christ (center) as Clero (a priest), and his torturers as Calles, Morones, and Obregón.

In the early battles, the insurgents were victorious against local forces but were defeated when they confronted the federal army — which led the federal commander in Jalisco, General Jesús Ferreira, to boast that he would conduct, not a campaign, but a hunt in the state. But in the Pacific coastal state of Colima he met his match in the person of an ex-seminarian and leader of the ACJM, Enrique de Jesús Ochoa. When Ochoa removed his insurgent force from Colima city to Caucentla on the border of Jalisco, Ferreira met him there — and was repulsed.

Because of the insurgents’ war cry — Viva Cristo Rey! (“Long live Christ the King!”) — the Federals, perhaps in mockery, named them Cristo-reyes or Cristeros. But though they might despise them for being peasants, Federal commanders learned to their dismay that the Cristeros had a number of gifted leaders. These were not militarily trained but were men of the common trades who discovered in the crucible of conflict a gift for strategy and command. Along with Ochoa were Jesús Degollado, a druggist; José Reyes Vega and Aristeo Pedroza, priests; and Victoriano Ramirez and Miguel Hernandez, ranch hands. Under such leaders, in the early months of 1927, Cristero forces won significant victories against crack federal cavalry at San Francisco del Rincón in Guanajuato, and at San Julián in Jalisco. (more…)

This Week in History

A Dastardly Execution: March 21, 1804

This text comes from our book, Light to the Nations II: The Making of the Modern World. See sample chapters, here. For ordering information on Light to the Nations II and our other texts, please click here

Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the Republic of France

Despite the Treaty of Amiens, France and Great Britain could not keep peace for long. In the several months following the signing of the treaty, Napoleon’s suspicions of England grew. Great Britain, he claimed, was not keeping to what she agreed to in the treaty. He complained that the government of King George III allowed the Bourbon princes to live in England and even supported them with money. He bristled at the ridicule English newspapers hurled at him—he, the First Consul of France and the champion of the Republic!

The English had their own grievances against France. The king’s government could not tolerate the power France had gained on the continent. Northern Italy and Switzerland had come under the republic’s “protection,” and so had the island of Elba (between Corsica and Italy) as well as the country of Holland. In granting “protection” to the Batavian Republic, as Holland was now called, France controlled the best coastline in northern Europe. And then there was the simple snobbery of the English upper class. For them, “Buonaparte” was nothing but an upstart—a lowborn Italian who by cunning had pushed his way into the society of his betters. Admiral Horatio Nelson spoke for many English aristocrats when he called Napoleon the “Corsican scoundrel.” (more…)